Ages 7 to 11  

Happy Stage 2

The Islamic curriculum for Happy Stage 2 (ages 7-11 years)

  • Arabic
  • Mafaheem Al Islaamiyyah
  • Fiqh & Usul
  • Geography
  • History
  • ArabicSentence structure and Grammar in the Arabic language (Ilm al Sarf)
  • More Meanings of words and reading & Writing following on from Stage 1
  • Conversation in Arabic
  • Arabic Vocabulary


Man and his thoughts, ideas and emotions

  • Personality
  • Mentality
  • Organic Needs
    • Consumption
    • Excretion
    • Sleeping
    • The result of not fulfilling organic needs can lead to death.
  • Instincts:
    • Survival instinct (Fear of Death)
    • Reverence Instinct (Being inferior and the need to worship)
    • Procreation (the desire to be a social being, marry and have children)
  • Emotions:
    • Instinctive emotions
    • Intellectual emotions
  • Sensation:
    • Tangible sensations
    • Intellectual sensations
  • The Mind
  • Thinking
    • Logical thought based on Assumption
    • Scientific based on Trial & error
    • Textual based on Juristic
    • investigation
    • Rational based on Sensation and previous information
  • Ideas
    • Idea
    • Thought
    • Concepts
    • Conviction
    • Criteria
  • Thought
    • Shallow
    • Deep
    • Enlightened

Man and his relationships with others

  • Relationships between Man and Woman
  • Relationships between Mankind and Allah
  • Relationships between Man/Woman
  • Relationship with Himself/Herself
  • (e.g. cleanliness and hygiene)
  • Relationships between Man and Animals
  • Relationships between Man and Animate Objects
  • Relationships between Man and Inanimate Objects


  • The Meaning of Wudu & Prayer:
  • Ahkaam (Rules) of Salaat
  • Ahkaam of Fasting
  • Ahkaam of Zakaat
  • Ahkaam of Hajj & 'Umrah

    The full rules of all these ritual actions must be taught at this stage.
    This includes each aspect of the obligations and explaining the aspects of each duty that are:

  • Wajib (obligation),
  • Mandoub (recommended),
  • Mubah (permissible),
  • Makrouh (disliked),
  • Haram (prohibited),
  • Sabab (cause),
  • Shart (condition),
  • Mani' (Preventionn),
  • Sihah (validity),
  • Butlan (Invalidity),
  • 'Azeemah (Original request) and
  • Rokhsah (Permit)


  • Introducing concepts about the night and day as creations of Allah
  • More detail on above topics and topics covered at Happy stage 1
  • How Allah has informed us that everything is from him, linking it to geography and geology
  • The historical development of the Earth and Land



The Development of the Deen in the World
  • The basis of the Message
  • The Struggle of the Anbiyaa'
  • The 10 Roles of the Anbiyaa'
  • The Anbiyaa' mentioned in the Qur'an
  • The Life of the Prophet Adam
  • The Life of the Prophet Idris (Enoch)
  • The Life of the Prophet Nuh (Noah)
  • The Life of the Prophet Hud
  • The Life of the Prophet Salih
  • The Life of the Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham)
  • The Life of the Prophet Ismaa'eel
  • The Life of the Prophet Is-haaq
  • The Life of the Prophet Ya'qoob (Jacob)
  • The Life of the Prophet Lut
  • The Life of the Prophet Shu'ayb
  • The Life of the Prophet Yusuf (Joseph)
  • The Life of the Prophet Ayyoob (Job)
  • The Life of the Prophet Yunus (Jonah)
  • The Life of the Prophet Moosa (Moses) & Harun (Aaron)
  • The Life of the Prophet Hizqeel (Ezekiel) 
  • The Life of the Prophet Elyas (Elisha)
  • The Life of the Prophet Shammil (Samuel)
  • The Life of the Prophet Dawood (David)
  • The Life of the Prophet Sulaymaan (Solomon)
  • The Life of the Prophet Zakariyya & Yahya
  • The Life of the Prophet Isa (Jesus)
  • The Life of the Prophet Muhammad
The Life of Prophet Muhammad in particular



Stage 1 | Stage 2 | Stage 3 | Stage 4

Happy Stage 2 for ages 7-11In addition to the above home educators in the UK may find the national curriculum for the same age group useful and so we have included it below.

Important note: We have included all the mandatory subjects, though some elements of the curriculum are not entirely compatible with the Islamic curriculum. Some of these elements can be taught in such a way that does not conflict with Islam. There are some points of the curriculum however, which seem irreconcilable with the Islamic teachings, particularly under the subject of 'Music'.



Right: National curriculum in the mandatory subjects for key stage 2 (ages 7-11 years)

* Although it is considered mandatory under the national curriculum in the UK, various elements of the curriculum for Music are in direct conflict with Islamic teachings and can be very problematic for Muslim students at a secular school.

** There are also a number of elements of Citizenship and Religious Education that could come into conflict with Islamic teachings, however these subjects are currently optional.


  • Mathematics
  • English
  • Science
  • Other subjects
  • Optional
Mathematics at Key stage 2 of the National Curriculum
Teaching should ensure that appropriate connections are made between the sections on 'number' and 'shape, space and measures'.

Number and Algebra

Teaching should ensure that appropriate connections are made between the sections on 'number', 'shape, space and measures', and 'handling data'.

Knowledge, skills and understanding

Using and applying number

1. Pupils should be taught to:

Problem solving

  1. make connections in mathematics and appreciate the need to use numerical skills and knowledge when solving problems in other parts of the mathematics curriculum
  2. break down a more complex problem or calculation into simpler steps before attempting a solution; identify the information needed to carry out the tasks
  3. select and use appropriate mathematical equipment, including ICT
  4. find different ways of approaching a problem in order to overcome any difficulties
  5. make mental estimates of the answers to calculations; check results


  1. organise work and refine ways of recording
  2. use notation diagrams and symbols correctly within a given problem
  3. present and interpret solutions in the context of the problem
  4. communicate mathematically, including the use of precise mathematical language


  1. understand and investigate general statements [for example, 'there are four prime numbers less than 10', 'wrist size is half neck size']
  2. search for pattern in their results; develop logical thinking and explain their reasoning.

Numbers and the number system

2. Pupils should be taught to:


  1. count on and back in tens or hundreds from any two- or three-digit number; recognise and continue number sequences formed by counting on or back in steps of constant size from any integer, extending to negative integers when counting back

Number patterns and sequences

  1. recognise and describe number patterns, including two- and three-digit multiples of 2, 5 or 10, recognising their patterns and using these to make predictions; make general statements, using words to describe a functional relationship, and test these; recognise prime numbers to 20 and square numbers up to 10 x 10; find factor pairs and all the prime factors of any two-digit integer


  1. read, write and order whole numbers, recognising that the position of a digit gives its value; use correctly the symbols <, >, =; multiply and divide any integer by 10 or 100 then extend to multiplying and dividing by 1000; round integers to the nearest 10 or 100 and then 1000; order a set of negative integers, explaining methods and reasoning; multiply and divide decimals by 10 or 100

Fractions, percentages and ratio

  1. understand unit fractions [for example, one-third or one-eighth] then fractions that are several parts of one whole [for example, two-thirds or five-eighths], locate them on a number line and use them to find fractions of shapes and quantities
  2. understand simple equivalent fractions and simplify fractions by cancelling common factors; compare and order simple fractions by converting them to fractions with a common denominator, explaining their methods and reasoning
  3. recognise the equivalence between the decimal and fraction forms of one half, quarters, tenths and hundredths; understand that 'percentage' means the 'number of parts per 100' and that it can be used for comparisons; find percentages of whole number quantities, using a calculator where appropriate
  4. recognise approximate proportions of a whole and use simple fractions and percentages to describe them, explaining their methods and reasoning
  5. solve simple problems involving ratio and direct proportion


  1. understand and use decimal notation for tenths and hundredths in context [for example, order amounts of money, round a sum of money to the nearest £, convert a length such as 1.36 metres to centimetres and vice versa]; locate on a number line, and order, a set of numbers or measurements; then recognise thousandths (only in metric measurements)
  2. round a number with one or two decimal places to the nearest integer or tenth; convert between centimetres and millimetres or metres, then between millimetres and metres, and metres and kilometres, explaining methods and reasoning.


3. Pupils should be taught to:

Number operations and the relationships between them

  1. develop further their understanding of the four number operations and the relationships between them including inverses; use the related vocabulary; choose suitable number operations to solve a given problem, and recognise similar problems to which they apply
  2. find remainders after division, then express a quotient as a fraction or decimal; round up or down after division, depending on the context
  3. understand the use of brackets to determine the order of operations; understand why the commutative, associative and distributive laws apply to addition and multiplication and how they can be used to do mental and written calculations more efficiently

Mental methods

  1. recall all addition and subtraction facts for each number to 20
  2. work out what they need to add to any two-digit number to make 100, then add or subtract any pair of two-digit whole numbers; handle particular cases of three-digit and four-digit additions and subtractions by using compensation or other methods [for example, 3000 - 1997, 4560 + 998]
  3. recall multiplication facts to 10 x 10 and use them to derive quickly the corresponding division facts
  4. double and halve any two-digit number
  5. multiply and divide, at first in the range 1 to 100 [for example, 27 x 3, 65 ÷ 5], then for particular cases of larger numbers by using factors, distribution or other methods

Written methods

  1. use written methods to add and subtract positive integers less than 1000, then up to 10000, then add and subtract numbers involving decimals; use approximations and other strategies to check that their answers are reasonable
  2. use written methods for short multiplication and division by a single-digit integer of two-digit then three-digit then four-digit integers, then of numbers with decimals; then use long multiplication, at first for two-digit by two-digit integer calculations, then for three-digit by two-digit calculations; extend division to informal methods of dividing by a two-digit divisor [for example, 64 ÷ 16]; use approximations and other strategies to check that their answers are reasonable

Calculator methods

  1. use a calculator for calculations involving several digits, including decimals; use a calculator to solve number problems [for example, 4 ? x 7 = 343]; know how to enter and interpret money calculations and fractions; know how to select the correct key sequence for calculations with more than one operation [for example, 56 x (87 - 48)].

Solving numerical problems

4. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. choose, use and combine any of the four number operations to solve word problems involving numbers in 'real life', money or measures of length, mass, capacity or time, then perimeter and area
  2. choose and use an appropriate way to calculate and explain their methods and reasoning
  3. estimate answers by approximating and checking that their results are reasonable by thinking about the context of the problem, and where necessary checking accuracy [for example, by using the inverse operation, by repeating the calculation in a different order]
  4. recognise, represent and interpret simple number relationships, constructing and using formulae in words then symbols [for example, c = 15 n is the cost, in pence, of n articles at 15p each]
read and plot coordinates in the first quadrant, then in all four quadrants [for example, plot the vertices of a rectangle, or a graph of the multiples of 3].


Shapes, space and measures

Knowledge, skills and understanding

Using and applying shape, space and measures

1. Pupils should be taught to:

Problem solving

  1. recognise the need for standard units of measurement
  2. select and use appropriate calculation skills to solve geometrical problems
  3. approach spatial problems flexibly, including trying alternative approaches to overcome difficulties
  4. use checking procedures to confirm that their results of geometrical problems are reasonable


  1. organise work and record or represent it in a variety of ways when presenting solutions to geometrical problems
  2. use geometrical notation and symbols correctly
  3. present and interpret solutions to problems


  1. use mathematical reasoning to explain features of shape and space.

Understanding properties of shape

2. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. recognise right angles, perpendicular and parallel lines; know that angles are measured in degrees and that one whole turn is 360 degrees and angles at a point total 360 degrees, then recognise that angles at a point on a straight line total 180 degrees; know that the sum of the angles of a triangle is 180 degrees
  2. visualise and describe 2-D and 3-D shapes and the way they behave, making more precise use of geometrical language, especially that of triangles, quadrilaterals, and prisms and pyramids of various kinds; recognise when shapes are identical
  3. make and draw with increasing accuracy 2-D and 3-D shapes and patterns; recognise reflective symmetry in regular polygons; recognise their geometrical features and properties including angles, faces, pairs of parallel lines and symmetry, and use these to classify shapes and solve problems
  4. visualise 3-D shapes from 2-D drawings.

Understanding properties of position and movement

3. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. visualise and describe movements using appropriate language
  2. transform objects in practical situations; transform images using ICT; visualise and predict the position of a shape following a rotation, reflection or translation
  3. identify and draw 2-D shapes in different orientations on grids; locate and draw shapes using coordinates in the first quadrant, then in all four quadrants [for example, use coordinates to locate position in a computer game] .

Understanding measures

4. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. recognise the need for standard units of length, mass and capacity, choose which ones are suitable for a task, and use them to make sensible estimates in everyday situations; convert one metric unit to another [for example, convert 3.17kg to 3170g] ; know the rough metric equivalents of imperial units still in daily use
  2. recognise that measurement is approximate; choose and use suitable measuring instruments for a task; interpret numbers and read scales with increasing accuracy; record measurements using decimal notation
  3. recognise angles as greater or less than a right angle or half-turn, estimate their size and order them; measure and draw acute, obtuse and right angles to the nearest degree
  4. read the time from analogue and digital 12- and 24-hour clocks; use units of time - seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks - and know the relationship between them
find perimeters of simple shapes; find areas of rectangles using the formula, understanding its connection to counting squares and how it extends this approach; calculate the perimeter and area of shapes composed of rectangles.
Handling Data

Knowledge, skills and understanding

Using and applying handling data

1. Pupils should be taught to:

Problem solving

  1. select and use handling data skills when solving problems in other areas of the curriculum, in particular science
  2. approach problems flexibly, including trying alternative approaches to overcome any difficulties
  3. identify the data necessary to solve a given problem
  4. select and use appropriate calculation skills to solve problems involving data
  5. check results and ensure that solutions are reasonable in the context of the problem


  1. decide how best to organise and present findings
  2. use the precise mathematical language and vocabulary for handling data


  1. explain and justify their methods and reasoning.

Processing, representing and interpreting data

2. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. solve problems involving data
  2. interpret tables, lists and charts used in everyday life; construct and interpret frequency tables, including tables for grouped discrete data
  3. represent and interpret discrete data using graphs and diagrams, including pictograms, bar charts and line graphs, then interpret a wider range of graphs and diagrams, using ICT where appropriate
  4. know that mode is a measure of average and that range is a measure of spread, and to use both ideas to describe data sets
  5. recognise the difference between discrete and continuous data
draw conclusions from statistics and graphs and recognise when information is presented in a misleading way; explore doubt and certainty and develop an understanding of probability through classroom situations; discuss events using a vocabulary that includes the words 'equally likely', 'fair', 'unfair', 'certain'.
Breadth of Study

1. During the key stage, pupils should be taught the Knowledge, skills and understanding through:

  1. activities that extend their understanding of the number system to include integers, fractions and decimals
  2. approximating and estimating more systematically in their work in mathematics
  3. using patterns and relationships to explore simple algebraic ideas
  4. applying their measuring skills in a range of contexts
  5. drawing inferences from data in practical activities, and recognising the difference between meaningful and misleading representations of data
  6. exploring and using a variety of resources and materials, including ICT
  7. activities in which pupils decide when the use of calculators is appropriate and then use them effectively
  8. using mathematics in their work in other subjects.
English at Key stage 2 of the National Curriculum
Teaching should ensure that work in 'speaking and listening', 'reading' and 'writing' is integrated.

Speaking & Listening

Teaching should ensure that work in 'speaking and listening', 'reading' and 'writing' is integrated.

pupils learn to change the way they speak and write to suit different situations, purposes and audiences. They read a range of texts and respond to different layers of meaning in them. They explore the use of language in literary and non-literary texts and learn how language works.
pupils learn how to speak in a range of contexts, adapting what they say and how they say it to the purpose and the audience. Taking varied roles in groups gives them opportunities to contribute to situations with different demands. They also learn to respond appropriately to others, thinking about what has been said and the language used.

Knowledge, skills and understanding


1. To speak with confidence in a range of contexts, adapting their speech for a range of purposes and audiences, pupils should be taught to:

  1. use vocabulary and syntax that enables them to communicate more complex meanings
  2. gain and maintain the interest and response of different audiences [for example, by exaggeration, humour, varying pace and using persuasive language to achieve particular effects]
  3. choose material that is relevant to the topic and to the listeners
  4. show clear shape and organisation with an introduction and an ending
  5. speak audibly and clearly, using spoken standard English in formal contexts
  6. evaluate their speech and reflect on how it varies.


2. To listen, understand and respond appropriately to others, pupils should be taught to:

  1. identify the gist of an account or key points in a discussion and evaluate what they hear
  2. ask relevant questions to clarify, extend and follow up ideas
  3. recall and re-present important features of an argument, talk, reading, radio or television programme, film
  4. identify features of language used for a specific purpose [for example, to persuade, instruct or entertain]
  5. respond to others appropriately, taking into account what they say.

Group discussion and interaction

3. To talk effectively as members of a group, pupils should be taught to:

  1. make contributions relevant to the topic and take turns in discussion
  2. vary contributions to suit the activity and purpose, including exploratory and tentative comments where ideas are being collected together, and reasoned, evaluative comments as discussion moves to conclusions or actions
  3. qualify or justify what they think after listening to others' questions or accounts
  4. deal politely with opposing points of view and enable discussion to move on
  5. take up and sustain different roles, adapting them to suit the situation, including chair, scribe and spokesperson
  6. use different ways to help the group move forward, including summarising the main points, reviewing what has been said, clarifying, drawing others in, reaching agreement, considering alternatives and anticipating consequences.


4. To participate in a wide range of drama activities and to evaluate their own and others' contributions, pupils should be taught to:

  1. create, adapt and sustain different roles, individually and in groups
  2. use character, action and narrative to convey story, themes, emotions, ideas in plays they devise and script
  3. use dramatic techniques to explore characters and issues [for example, hot seating, flashback]
  4. evaluate how they and others have contributed to the overall effectiveness of performances.

Standard English

5. Pupils should be taught the grammatical constructions that are characteristic of spoken standard English and to apply this knowledge appropriately in a range of contexts.

Language variation

6. Pupils should be taught about how language varies:

  1. according to context and purpose [for example, choice of vocabulary in more formal situations]
  2. between standard and dialect forms [for example, in drama, the effect of using standard or dialect forms]
  3. between spoken and written forms [for example, the differences between transcribed speech, direct speech and reported speech].

Breadth of study

7. During the key stage, pupils should be taught the Knowledge, skills and understanding through the following range of activities, contexts and purposes.


8. The range should include:

  1. reading aloud
  2. presenting to different audiences
  3. extended speaking for different purposes.


9. The range should include opportunities for pupils to listen to:

  1. live talks/readings/presentations
  2. recordings [for example, radio, television, film]
  3. others in groups.

Group discussion and interaction

10. The range of purposes should include:

  1. investigating, selecting, sorting
  2. planning, predicting, exploring
  3. explaining, reporting, evaluating.

Drama activities

11. The range should include:

  1. improvisation and working in role
  2. scripting and performing in plays
  3. responding to performances.



Knowledge, skills and understanding

Reading strategies

1. To read with fluency, accuracy and understanding, pupils should be taught to use:

  1. phonemic awareness and phonic knowledge
  2. word recognition and graphic knowledge
  3. knowledge of grammatical structures
  4. contextual understanding.

Understanding texts

2. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. use inference and deduction
  2. look for meaning beyond the literal
  3. make connections between different parts of a text [for example, how stories begin and end, what has been included and omitted in information writing]
  4. use their knowledge of other texts they have read.

Reading for information

3. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. scan texts to find information
  2. skim for gist and overall impression
  3. obtain specific information through detailed reading
  4. draw on different features of texts, including print, sound and image, to obtain meaning
  5. use organisational features and systems to find texts and information
  6. distinguish between fact and opinion [for example, by looking at the purpose of the text, the reliability of information]
  7. consider an argument critically.


4. To develop understanding and appreciation of literary texts, pupils should be taught to:

  1. recognise the choice, use and effect of figurative language, vocabulary and patterns of language
  2. identify different ways of constructing sentences and their effects
  3. identify how character and setting are created, and how plot, narrative structure and themes are developed
  4. recognise the differences between author, narrator and character
  5. evaluate ideas and themes that broaden perspectives and extend thinking
  6. consider poetic forms and their effects
  7. express preferences and support their views by reference to texts
  8. respond imaginatively, drawing on the whole text and other reading
  9. read stories, poems and plays aloud.

Non-fiction and non-literary texts

5. To develop understanding and appreciation of non-fiction and non-literary texts, pupils should be taught to:

  1. identify the use and effect of specialist vocabulary
  2. identify words associated with reason, persuasion, argument, explanation, instruction and description
  3. recognise phrases and sentences that convey a formal, impersonal tone
  4. identify links between ideas and sentences in non-chronological writing
  5. understand the structural and organisational features of different types of text [for example, paragraphing, subheadings, links in hypertext]
  6. evaluate different formats, layouts and presentational devices [for example, tables, bullet points, icons]
  7. engage with challenging and demanding subject matter.

Language structure and variation

6. To read texts with greater accuracy and understanding, pupils should be taught to identify and comment on features of English at word, sentence and text level, using appropriate terminology [for example, how adjectives and adverbs contribute to overall effect, the use of varying sentence length and structure, connections between chapters or sections].

Breadth of study

7. During the key stage, pupils should be taught the Knowledge, skills and understanding through the following ranges of literature and non-fiction and non-literary texts.


8. The range should include:

  1. a range of modern fiction by significant children's authors
  2. long-established children's fiction
  3. a range of good-quality modern poetry
  4. classic poetry
  5. texts drawn from a variety of cultures and traditions
  6. myths, legends and traditional stories
  7. playscripts.

Non-fiction and non-literary texts

9. The range should include:

  1. diaries, autobiographies, biographies, letters
  2. print and ICT-based reference and information materials [for example, textbooks, reports, encyclopedias, handbooks, dictionaries, thesauruses, glossaries, CD-ROMs, internet]
newspapers, magazines, articles, leaflets, brochures, advertisements.

Teaching should ensure that work in 'speaking and listening', 'reading' and 'writing' is integrated.

Knowledge, skills and understanding


1. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. choose form and content to suit a particular purpose [for example, notes to read or organise thinking, plans for action, poetry for pleasure]
  2. broaden their vocabulary and use it in inventive ways
  3. use language and style that are appropriate to the reader
  4. use and adapt the features of a form of writing, drawing on their reading
  5. use features of layout, presentation and organisation effectively.

Planning and drafting

2. To develop their writing on paper and on screen, pupils should be taught to:

  1. plan - note and develop initial ideas
  2. draft - develop ideas from the plan into structured written text
  3. revise - change and improve the draft
  4. proofread - check the draft for spelling and punctuation errors, omissions and repetitions
  5. present - prepare a neat, correct and clear final copy
  6. discuss and evaluate their own and others' writing.


3. Pupils should be taught to use punctuation marks correctly in their writing, including full stops, question and exclamation marks, commas, inverted commas, and apostrophes to mark possession and omission.


4. Pupils should be taught:

Spelling strategies

  1. to sound out phonemes
  2. to analyse words into syllables and other known words
  3. to apply knowledge of spelling conventions
  4. to use knowledge of common letter strings, visual patterns and analogies
  5. to check their spelling using word banks, dictionaries and spellcheckers
  6. to revise and build on their knowledge of words and spelling patterns


  1. the meaning, use and spelling of common prefixes and suffixes
  2. the spelling of words with inflectional endings
  3. the relevance of word families, roots and origins of words
  4. the use of appropriate terminology, including vowel, consonant, homophone and syllable.

Handwriting and presentation

5. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. write legibly in both joined and printed styles with increasing fluency and speed
  2. use different forms of handwriting for different purposes [for example, print for labelling maps or diagrams, a clear, neat hand for finished presented work, a faster script for notes].

Standard English

6. Pupils should be taught:

  1. how written standard English varies in degrees of formality [for example, differences between a letter to a friend about a school trip and a report for display]
  2. some of the differences between standard and non-standard English usage, including subject-verb agreements and use of prepositions.

Language structure

7. Pupils should be taught:

  1. word classes and the grammatical functions of words, including nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, articles
  2. the features of different types of sentence, including statements, questions and commands, and how to use them [for example, imperatives in commands]
  3. the grammar of complex sentences, including clauses, phrases and connectives
  4. the purposes and organisational features of paragraphs, and how ideas can be linked.

Breadth of study

8. During the key stage, pupils should be taught the Knowledge, skills and understanding through addressing the following range of purposes, readers and forms of writing.
9. The range of purposes for writing should include:

  1. to imagine and explore feelings and ideas, focusing on creative uses of language and how to interest the reader
  2. to inform and explain, focusing on the subject matter and how to convey it in sufficient detail for the reader
  3. to persuade, focusing on how arguments and evidence are built up and language used to convince the reader
  4. to review and comment on what has been read, seen or heard, focusing on both the topic and the writer's view of it.

10. Pupils should also be taught to use writing to help their thinking, investigating, organising and learning.
11. The range of readers for writing should include teachers, the class, other children, adults, the wider community and imagined readers.

12. The range of forms of writing should include narratives, poems, playscripts, reports, explanations, opinions, instructions, reviews, commentaries.


Science at Key stage 2 of the National Curriculum
Teaching should ensure that 'scientific enquiry' is taught through contexts taken from the sections on 'life processes and living things', 'materials and their properties' and 'physical processes'.

Scientific Enquiry

Teaching should ensure that 'scientific enquiry' is taught through contexts taken from the sections on 'life processes and living things', 'materials and their properties' and 'physical processes'.

Knowledge, skills and understanding

Ideas and evidence in science

1. Pupils should be taught:

  1. that science is about thinking creatively to try to explain how living and non-living things work, and to establish links between causes and effects [for example, Jenner's vaccination work]
  2. that it is important to test ideas using evidence from observation and measurement.

Investigative skills

2. Pupils should be taught to:


  1. ask questions that can be investigated scientifically and decide how to find answers
  2. consider what sources of information, including first-hand experience and a range of other sources, they will use to answer questions
  3. think about what might happen or try things out when deciding what to do, what kind of evidence to collect, and what equipment and materials to use
  4. make a fair test or comparison by changing one factor and observing or measuring the effect while keeping other factors the same

Obtaining and presenting evidence

  1. use simple equipment and materials appropriately and take action to control risks
  2. make systematic observations and measurements, including the use of ICT for datalogging
  3. check observations and measurements by repeating them where appropriate
  4. use a wide range of methods, including diagrams, drawings, tables, bar charts, line graphs and ICT, to communicate data in an appropriate and systematic manner

Considering evidence and evaluating

  1. make comparisons and identify simple patterns or associations in their own observations and measurements or other data
  2. use observations, measurements or other data to draw conclusions
  3. decide whether these conclusions agree with any prediction made and/or whether they enable further predictions to be made
  4. use their scientific knowledge and understanding to explain observations, measurements or other data or conclusions
review their work and the work of others and describe its significance and limitations.


Life processes and living things

Teaching should ensure that 'scientific enquiry' is taught through contexts taken from the sections on 'life processes and living things', 'materials and their properties' and 'physical processes'.

Knowledge, skills and understanding

Life processes

1. Pupils should be taught:

  1. that the life processes common to humans and other animals include nutrition, movement, growth and reproduction
  2. that the life processes common to plants include growth, nutrition and reproduction
  3. to make links between life processes in familiar animals and plants and the environments in which they are found.

Humans and other animals

2. Pupils should be taught:


  1. about the functions and care of teeth
  2. about the need for food for activity and growth, and about the importance of an adequate and varied diet for health


  1. that the heart acts as a pump to circulate the blood through vessels around the body, including through the lungs
  2. about the effect of exercise and rest on pulse rate


  1. that humans and some other animals have skeletons and muscles to support and protect their bodies and to help them to move

Growth and reproduction

  1. about the main stages of the human life cycle


  1. about the effects on the human body of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs, and how these relate to their personal health
  2. about the importance of exercise for good health.

Green plants

3. Pupils should be taught:

Growth and nutrition

  1. the effect of light, air, water and temperature on plant growth
  2. the role of the leaf in producing new material for growth
  3. that the root anchors the plant, and that water and minerals are taken in through the root and transported through the stem to other parts of the plant


  1. about the parts of the flower [for example, stigma, stamen, petal, sepal] and their role in the life cycle of flowering plants, including pollination, seed formation, seed dispersal and germination.

Variation and classification

4. Pupils should be taught:

  1. to make and use keys
  2. how locally occurring animals and plants can be identified and assigned to groups
  3. that the variety of plants and animals makes it important to identify them and assign them to groups.

Living things in their environment

5. Pupils should be taught:

  1. about ways in which living things and the environment need protection


  1. about the different plants and animals found in different habitats
  2. how animals and plants in two different habitats are suited to their environment

Feeding relationships

  1. to use food chains to show feeding relationships in a habitat
  2. about how nearly all food chains start with a green plant


that micro-organisms are living organisms that are often too small to be seen, and that they may be beneficial [for example, in the breakdown of waste, in making bread] or harmful [for example, in causing disease, in causing food to go mouldy].


Materials and their properties

Knowledge, skills and understanding

Grouping and classifying materials

1. Pupils should be taught:

  1. to compare everyday materials and objects on the basis of their material properties, including hardness, strength, flexibility and magnetic behaviour, and to relate these properties to everyday uses of the materials
  2. that some materials are better thermal insulators than others
  3. that some materials are better electrical conductors than others
  4. to describe and group rocks and soils on the basis of their characteristics, including appearance, texture and permeability
  5. to recognise differences between solids, liquids and gases, in terms of ease of flow and maintenance of shape and volume.

Changing materials

2. Pupils should be taught:

  1. to describe changes that occur when materials are mixed [for example, adding salt to water]
  2. to describe changes that occur when materials [for example, water, clay, dough] are heated or cooled
  3. that temperature is a measure of how hot or cold things are
  4. about reversible changes, including dissolving, melting, boiling, condensing, freezing and evaporating
  5. the part played by evaporation and condensation in the water cycle
  6. that non-reversible changes [for example, vinegar reacting with bicarbonate of soda, plaster of Paris with water] result in the formation of new materials that may be useful
  7. that burning materials [for example, wood, wax, natural gas] results in the formation of new materials and that this change is not usually reversible.

Separating mixtures of materials

3. Pupils should be taught:

  1. how to separate solid particles of different sizes by sieving [for example, those in soil]
  2. that some solids [for example, salt, sugar] dissolve in water to give solutions but some [for example, sand, chalk] do not
  3. how to separate insoluble solids from liquids by filtering
  4. how to recover dissolved solids by evaporating the liquid from the solution
to use knowledge of solids, liquids and gases to decide how mixtures might be separated.
Physical processes

Teaching should ensure that 'scientific enquiry' is taught through contexts taken from the sections on 'life processes and living things', 'materials and their properties' and 'physical processes'.

Knowledge, skills and understanding


1. Pupils should be taught:

Simple circuits

  1. to construct circuits, incorporating a battery or power supply and a range of switches, to make electrical devices work [for example, buzzers, motors]
  2. how changing the number or type of components [for example, batteries, bulbs, wires] in a series circuit can make bulbs brighter or dimmer
  3. how to represent series circuits by drawings and conventional symbols, and how to construct series circuits on the basis of drawings and diagrams using conventional symbols.

Forces and motion

2. Pupils should be taught:

Types of force

  1. about the forces of attraction and repulsion between magnets, and about the forces of attraction between magnets and magnetic materials
  2. that objects are pulled downwards because of the gravitational attraction between them and the Earth
  3. about friction, including air resistance, as a force that slows moving objects and may prevent objects from starting to move
  4. that when objects [for example, a spring, a table] are pushed or pulled, an opposing pull or push can be felt
  5. how to measure forces and identify the direction in which they act.

Light and sound

3. Pupils should be taught:

Everyday effects of light

  1. that light travels from a source
  2. that light cannot pass through some materials, and how this leads to the formation of shadows
  3. that light is reflected from surfaces [for example, mirrors, polished metals]


  1. that we see things only when light from them enters our eyes

Vibration and sound

  1. that sounds are made when objects [for example, strings on musical instruments] vibrate but that vibrations are not always directly visible
  2. how to change the pitch and loudness of sounds produced by some vibrating objects [for example, a drum skin, a plucked string]
  3. that vibrations from sound sources require a medium [for example, metal, wood, glass, air] through which to travel to the ear.

The Earth and beyond

4. Pupils should be taught:

The Sun, Earth and Moon

  1. that the Sun, Earth and Moon are approximately spherical

Periodic changes

  1. how the position of the Sun appears to change during the day, and how shadows change as this happens
  2. how day and night are related to the spin of the Earth on its own axis
  3. that the Earth orbits the Sun once each year, and that the Moon takes approximately 28 days to orbit the Earth.
Breadth of study

1. During the key stage, pupils should be taught the Knowledge, skills and understanding through:

  1. a range of domestic and environmental contexts that are familiar and of interest to them
  2. looking at the part science has played in the development of many useful things
  3. using a range of sources of information and data, including ICT-based sources
  4. using first-hand and secondary data to carry out a range of scientific investigations, including complete investigations.

2. During the key stage, pupils should be taught to:


  1. use appropriate scientific language and terms, including SI units of measurement [for example, metre, newton] , to communicate ideas and explain the behaviour of living things, materials, phenomena and processes

Health and safety

recognise that there are hazards in living things, materials and physical processes, and assess risks and take action to reduce risks to themselves and others.


Other subjects at Key stage 2 of the National Curriculum
The following are the other mandatory subjects at key stage 2.


Teaching should ensure that 'geographical enquiry and skills' are used when developing 'knowledge and understanding of places, patterns and processes', and 'environmental change and sustainable development'.

Knowledge, skills and understanding

Geographical enquiry and skills

1. In undertaking geographical enquiry, pupils should be taught to:

  1. ask geographical questions [for example, 'What is this landscape like?', 'What do I think about it?']
  2. collect and record evidence [for example, by carrying out a survey of shop functions and showing them on a graph]
  3. analyse evidence and draw conclusions [for example, by comparing population data for two localities]
  4. identify and explain different views that people, including themselves, hold about topical geographical issues [for example, views about plans to build an hotel in an overseas locality]
  5. communicate in ways appropriate to the task and audience [for example, by writing to a newspaper about a local issue, using email to exchange information about the locality with another school].

2. In developing geographical skills, pupils should be taught:

  1. to use appropriate geographical vocabulary [for example, temperature, transport, industry]
  2. to use appropriate fieldwork techniques [for example, labelled field sketches] and instruments [for example, a rain gauge, a camera]
  3. to use atlases and globes, and maps and plans at a range of scales [for example, using contents, keys, grids]
  4. to use secondary sources of information, including aerial photographs [for example, stories, information texts, the internet, satellite images, photographs, videos]
  5. to draw plans and maps at a range of scales [for example, a sketch map of a locality]
  6. to use ICT to help in geographical investigations [for example, creating a data file to analyse fieldwork data]
  7. decision-making skills [for example, deciding what measures are needed to improve safety in a local street].

Knowledge and understanding of places

3. Pupils should be taught:

  1. to identify and describe what places are like [for example, in terms of weather, jobs]
  2. the location of places and environments they study and other significant places and environments [for example, places and environments in the news]
  3. to describe where places are [for example, in which region/country the places are, whether they are near rivers or hills, what the nearest towns or cities are]
  4. to explain why places are like they are [for example, in terms of weather conditions, local resources, historical development]
  5. to identify how and why places change [for example, through the closure of shops or building of new houses, through conservation projects] and how they may change in the future [for example, through an increase in traffic or an influx of tourists]
  6. to describe and explain how and why places are similar to and different from other places in the same country and elsewhere in the world [for example, comparing a village with a part of a city in the same country]
  7. to recognise how places fit within a wider geographical context [for example, as part of a bigger region or country] and are interdependent [for example, through the supply of goods, movements of people].

Knowledge and understanding of patterns and processes

4. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. recognise and explain patterns made by individual physical and human features in the environment [for example, where frost forms in the playground, the distribution of hotels along a seafront]
  2. recognise some physical and human processes [for example, river erosion, a factory closure] and explain how these can cause changes in places and environments.

Knowledge and understanding of environmental change and sustainable development

5. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. recognise how people can improve the environment [for example, by reclaiming derelict land] or damage it [for example, by polluting a river], and how decisions about places and environments affect the future quality of people's lives
  2. recognise how and why people may seek to manage environments sustainably, and to identify opportunities for their own involvement [for example, taking part in a local conservation project].

Breadth of study

6. During the key stage, pupils should be taught the Knowledge, skills and understanding through the study of two localities and three themes:


  1. a locality in the United Kingdom
  2. a locality in a country that is less economically developed


  1. water and its effects on landscapes and people, including the physical features of rivers [for example, flood plain] or coasts [for example, beach], and the processes of erosion and deposition that affect them
  2. how settlements differ and change, including why they differ in size and character [for example, commuter village, seaside town], and an issue arising from changes in land use [for example, the building of new housing or a leisure complex]
  3. an environmental issue, caused by change in an environment [for example, increasing traffic congestion, hedgerow loss, drought], and attempts to manage the environment sustainably [for example, by improving public transport, creating a new nature reserve, reducing water use].

7. In their study of localities and themes, pupils should:

  1. study at a range of scales - local, regional and national
  2. study a range of places and environments in different parts of the world, including the United Kingdom and the European Union
  3. carry out fieldwork investigations outside the classroom.



During key stage 2 pupils learn about significant people, events and places from both the recent and more distant past. They learn about change and continuity in their own area, in Britain and in other parts of the world. They look at history in a variety of ways, for example from political, economic, technological and scientific, social, religious, cultural or aesthetic perspectives. They use different sources of information to help them investigate the past both in depth and in overview, using dates and historical vocabulary to describe events, people and developments. They also learn that the past can be represented and interpreted in different ways.

Knowledge, skills and understanding

Chronological understanding

1. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. place events, people and changes into correct periods of time
  2. use dates and vocabulary relating to the passing of time, including ancient, modern, BC, AD, century and decade.

Knowledge and understanding of events, people and changes in the past

2. Pupils should be taught:

  1. about characteristic features of the periods and societies studied, including the ideas, beliefs, attitudes and experiences of men, women and children in the past
  2. about the social, cultural, religious and ethnic diversity of the societies studied, in Britain and the wider world
  3. to identify and describe reasons for, and results of, historical events, situations, and changes in the periods studied
  4. to describe and make links between the main events, situations and changes within and across the different periods and societies studied.

Historical interpretation

3. Pupils should be taught to recognise that the past is represented and interpreted in different ways, and to give reasons for this.

Historical enquiry

4. Pupils should be taught:

  1. how to find out about the events, people and changes studied from an appropriate range of sources of information, including ICT-based sources [for example, documents, printed sources, CD-ROMS, databases, pictures and photographs, music, artefacts, historic buildings and visits to museums, galleries and sites]
  2. to ask and answer questions, and to select and record information relevant to the focus of the enquiry.

Organisation and communication

5. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. recall, select and organise historical information
  2. use dates and historical vocabulary to describe the periods studied
  3. communicate their knowledge and understanding of history in a variety of ways [for example, drawing, writing, by using ICT].

Breadth of study

6. During the key stage, pupils should be taught the Knowledge, skills and understanding through a local history study, three British history studies, a European history study and a world history study.

Local history study

7. A study investigating how an aspect in the local area has changed over a long period of time, or how the locality was affected by a significant national or local event or development or by the work of a significant individual.

British history

8. In their study of British history, pupils should be taught about:

  1. the Romans, Anglo-Saxons and Vikings; Britain and the wider world in Tudor times; and either Victorian Britain or Britain since 1930
  2. aspects of the histories of England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales, where appropriate, and about the history of Britain in its European and wider world context, in these periods.

Romans, Anglo-Saxons and Vikings in Britain

9. An overview study of how British society was shaped by the movement and settlement of different peoples in the period before the Norman Conquest and an in-depth study of how British society was affected by Roman or Anglo-Saxon or Viking settlement.

Britain and the wider world in Tudor times

10. A study of some significant events and individuals, including Tudor monarchs, who shaped this period and of the everyday lives of men, women and children from different sections of society.

Victorian Britain or Britain since 1930

11. Teachers can choose between a study of Victorian Britain or Britain since 1930.

Victorian Britain

  1. A study of the impact of significant individuals, events and changes in work and transport on the lives of men, women and children from different sections of society.

Britain since 1930

  1. A study of the impact of the Second World War or social and technological changes that have taken place since 1930, on the lives of men, women and children from different sections of society.

A European history study

12. A study of the way of life, beliefs and achievements of the people living in Ancient Greece and the influence of their civilisation on the world today.

A world history study

13. A study of the key features, including the everyday lives of men, women and children, of a past society selected from: Ancient Egypt, Ancient Sumer, the Assyrian Empire, the Indus Valley, the Maya, Benin, or the Aztecs.



During key stage 2 pupils use a wider range of ICT tools and information sources to support their work in other subjects. They develop their research skills and decide what information is appropriate for their work. They begin to question the plausibility and quality of information. They learn how to amend their work and present it in a way that suits its audience.
Note: The general teaching requirement for health and safety applies in this subject.

Knowledge, skills and understanding

Finding things out

1. Pupils should be taught:

  1. to talk about what information they need and how they can find and use it [for example, searching the internet or a CD-ROM, using printed material, asking people]
  2. how to prepare information for development using ICT, including selecting suitable sources, finding information, classifying it and checking it for accuracy [for example, finding information from books or newspapers, creating a class database, classifying by characteristics and purposes, checking the spelling of names is consistent]
  3. to interpret information, to check it is relevant and reasonable and to think about what might happen if there were any errors or omissions.

Developing ideas and making things happen

2. Pupils should be taught:

  1. how to develop and refine ideas by bringing together, organising and reorganising text, tables, images and sound as appropriate [for example, desktop publishing, multimedia presentations]
  2. how to create, test, improve and refine sequences of instructions to make things happen and to monitor events and respond to them [for example, monitoring changes in temperature, detecting light levels and turning on a light]
  3. to use simulations and explore models in order to answer 'What if ... ?' questions, to investigate and evaluate the effect of changing values and to identify patterns and relationships [for example, simulation software, spreadsheet models].

Exchanging and sharing information

3. Pupils should be taught:

  1. how to share and exchange information in a variety of forms, including e-mail [for example, displays, posters, animations, musical compositions]
  2. to be sensitive to the needs of the audience and think carefully about the content and quality when communicating information [for example, work for presentation to other pupils, writing for parents, publishing on the internet].

Reviewing, modifying and evaluating work as it progresses

4. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. review what they and others have done to help them develop their ideas
  2. describe and talk about the effectiveness of their work with ICT, comparing it with other methods and considering the effect it has on others [for example, the impact made by a desktop-published newsletter or poster]
  3. talk about how they could improve future work.

Breadth of study

5. During the key stage, pupils should be taught the Knowledge, skills and understanding through:

  1. working with a range of information to consider its characteristics and purposes [for example, collecting factual data from the internet and a class survey to compare the findings]
  2. working with others to explore a variety of information sources and ICT tools [for example, searching the internet for information about a different part of the world, designing textile patterns using graphics software, using ICT tools to capture and change sounds]
investigating and comparing the uses of ICT inside and outside school.
Art & Design

Teaching should ensure that 'investigating and making' includes 'exploring and developing ideas' and 'evaluating and developing work'. 'Knowledge and understanding' should inform this process.

pupils develop their creativity and imagination through more complex activities. These help to build on their skills and improve their control of materials, tools and techniques. They increase their critical awareness of the roles and purposes of art, craft and design in different times and cultures. They become more confident in using visual and tactile elements and materials and processes to communicate what they see, feel and think.

Knowledge, skills and understanding

Exploring and developing ideas

1. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. record from experience and imagination, to select and record from first-hand observation and to explore ideas for different purposes
  2. question and make thoughtful observations about starting points and select ideas to use in their work
  3. collect visual and other information [for example, images, materials] to help them develop their ideas, including using a sketchbook.

Investigating and making art, craft and design

2. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. investigate and combine visual and tactile qualities of materials and processes and to match these qualities to the purpose of the work
  2. apply their experience of materials and processes, including drawing, developing their control of tools and techniques
  3. use a variety of methods and approaches to communicate observations, ideas and feelings, and to design and make images and artefacts.

Evaluating and developing work

3. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. compare ideas, methods and approaches in their own and others' work and say what they think and feel about them
  2. adapt their work according to their views and describe how they might develop it further.

Knowledge and understanding

4. Pupils should be taught about:

  1. visual and tactile elements, including colour, pattern and texture, line and tone, shape, form and space, and how these elements can be combined and organised for different purposes
  2. materials and processes used in art, craft and design and how these can be matched to ideas and intentions
  3. the roles and purposes of artists, craftspeople and designers working in different times and cultures [for example, Western Europe and the wider world].

Breadth of study

5. During the key stage, pupils should be taught the Knowledge, skills and understanding through:

  1. exploring a range of starting points for practical work [for example, themselves, their experiences, images, stories, drama, music, natural and made objects and environments]
  2. working on their own, and collaborating with others, on projects in two and three dimensions and on different scales
  3. using a range of materials and processes, including ICT [for example, painting, collage, print making, digital media, textiles, sculpture]
  4. investigating art, craft and design in the locality and in a variety of genres, styles and traditions [for example, in original and reproduction form, during visits to museums, galleries and sites, on the internet].
Design & Technology

Teaching should ensure that 'knowledge and understanding' are applied when 'developing ideas', 'planning', 'making products' and 'evaluating' them.

Knowledge, skills and understanding

Developing, planning and communicating ideas

1. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. generate ideas for products after thinking about who will use them and what they will be used for, using information from a number of sources, including ICT-based sources
  2. develop ideas and explain them clearly, putting together a list of what they want their design to achieve
  3. plan what they have to do, suggesting a sequence of actions and alternatives, if needed
  4. communicate design ideas in different ways as these develop, bearing in mind aesthetic qualities, and the uses and purposes for which the product is intended.

Working with tools, equipment, materials and components to make quality products

2. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. select appropriate tools and techniques for making their product
  2. suggest alternative ways of making their product, if first attempts fail
  3. explore the sensory qualities of materials and how to use materials and processes
  4. measure, mark out, cut and shape a range of materials, and assemble, join and combine components and materials accurately
  5. use finishing techniques to strengthen and improve the appearance of their product, using a range of equipment including ICT [for example, 'drawing' software or computer-aided design (CAD) software and a printer]
  6. follow safe procedures for food safety and hygiene.

Evaluating processes and products

3. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. reflect on the progress of their work as they design and make, identifying ways they could improve their products
  2. carry out appropriate tests before making any improvements
  3. recognise that the quality of a product depends on how well it is made and how well it meets its intended purpose [for example, how well products meet social, economic and environmental considerations].

Knowledge and understanding of materials and components

4. Pupils should be taught:

  1. how the working characteristics of materials affect the ways they are used
  2. how materials can be combined and mixed to create more useful properties [for example, using cardboard triangles on the corners of a wooden framework to strengthen it]
  3. how mechanisms can be used to make things move in different ways, using a range of equipment including an ICT control program
  4. how electrical circuits, including those with simple switches, can be used to achieve results that work.

Breadth of study

5. During the key stage, pupils should be taught the Knowledge, skills and understanding through:

  1. investigating and evaluating a range of familiar products, thinking about how they work, how they are used and the views of the people who use them
  2. focused practical tasks that develop a range of techniques, skills, processes and knowledge
  3. design and make assignments using a range of materials, including electrical and mechanical components, food, mouldable materials, stiff and flexible sheet materials, and textiles


Physical Education (P.E)

Teaching should ensure that when 'evaluating and improving performance', connections are made between 'developing, selecting and applying skills, tactics and compositional ideas', and 'fitness and health'.

Knowledge, skills and understanding

Acquiring and developing skills

1. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. consolidate their existing skills and gain new ones
  2. perform actions and skills with more consistent control and quality.

Selecting and applying skills, tactics and compositional ideas

2. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. plan, use and adapt strategies, tactics and compositional ideas for individual, pair, small-group and small-team activities
  2. develop and use their knowledge of the principles behind the strategies, tactics and ideas to improve their effectiveness
  3. apply rules and conventions for different activities.

Evaluating and improving performance

3. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. identify what makes a performance effective
  1. suggest improvements based on this information.

Knowledge and understanding of fitness and health

4. Pupils should be taught:

  1. how exercise affects the body in the short term
  2. to warm up and prepare appropriately for different activities
  3. why physical activity is good for their health and well-being
  4. why wearing appropriate clothing and being hygienic is good for their health and safety.

Breadth of study

5. During the key stage, pupils should be taught the Knowledge, skills and understanding through five areas of activity:

  1. dance activities
  2. games activities
  3. gymnastic activities

and two activity areas from:

  1. swimming activities and water safety
  2. athletic activities
  3. outdoor and adventurous activities.

Swimming activities and water safety must be chosen as one of these areas of activity unless pupils have completed the full key stage 2 teaching requirements in relation to swimming activities and water safety during key stage 1.

Dance activities

6. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. create and perform dances using a range of movement patterns, including those from different times, places and cultures
  2. respond to a range of stimuli and accompaniment.

Games activities

7. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. play and make up small-sided and modified competitive net, striking/fielding and invasion games
  2. use skills and tactics and apply basic principles suitable for attacking and defending
  3. work with others to organise and keep the games going.

Gymnastic activities

8. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. create and perform fluent sequences on the floor and using apparatus
  2. include variations in level, speed and direction in their sequences.

Swimming activities and water safety

9. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. pace themselves in floating and swimming challenges related to speed, distance and personal survival
  2. swim unaided for a sustained period of time over a distance of at least 25m
  3. use recognised arm and leg actions, lying on their front and back
  4. use a range of recognised strokes and personal survival skills [for example, front crawl, back crawl, breaststroke, sculling, floating and surface diving].

Athletic activities

10. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. take part in and design challenges and competitions that call for precision, speed, power or stamina
  2. use running, jumping and throwing skills both singly and in combination
  3. pace themselves in these challenges and competitions.

Outdoor and adventurous activities

11. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. take part in outdoor activity challenges, including following trails, in familiar, unfamiliar and changing environments
  2. use a range of orienteering and problem-solving skills
  3. work with others to meet the challenges.

Teaching should ensure that 'listening, and applying knowledge and understanding', are developed through the interrelated skills of 'performing', 'composing' and 'appraising'.

Knowledge, skills and understanding

Controlling sounds through singing and playing - performing skills

1. Pupils should be taught how to:

  1. sing songs, in unison and two parts, with clear diction, control of pitch, a sense of phrase and musical expression
  2. play tuned and untuned instruments with control and rhythmic accuracy
  3. practise, rehearse and present performances with an awareness of the audience.

Creating and developing musical ideas - composing skills

2. Pupils should be taught how to:

  1. improvise, developing rhythmic and melodic material when performing
  2. explore, choose, combine and organise musical ideas within musical structures.

Responding and reviewing - appraising skills

3. Pupils should be taught how to:

  1. analyse and compare sounds
  2. explore and explain their own ideas and feelings about music using movement, dance, expressive language and musical vocabulary
  3. improve their own and others' work in relation to its intended effect.

Listening, and applying knowledge and understanding

4. Pupils should be taught:

  1. to listen with attention to detail and to internalise and recall sounds with increasing aural memory
  2. how the combined musical elements of pitch, duration, dynamics, tempo, timbre, texture and silence can be organised within musical structures [for example, ostinato] and used to communicate different moods and effects
  3. how music is produced in different ways [for example, through the use of different resources, including ICT] and described through relevant established and invented notations
  4. how time and place can influence the way music is created, performed and heard [for example, the effect of occasion and venue]

Breadth of study

5. During the key stage, pupils should be taught the Knowledge, skills and understanding through:

  1. a range of musical activities that integrate performing, composing and appraising
  2. responding to a range of musical and non-musical starting points
  3. working on their own, in groups of different sizes and as a class
  4. using ICT to capture, change and combine sounds
  5. a range of live and recorded music from different times and cultures [for example, from the British Isles, from classical, folk and popular genres, by well-known composers and performers].
Optional subjects at Key stage 2 of the National Curriculum
The following are the optional subjects at key stage 2 that can be opted out of**.


During key stage 2 pupils learn about themselves as growing and changing individuals with their own experiences and ideas, and as members of their communities. They become more mature, independent and self-confident. They learn about the wider world and the interdependence of communities within it. They develop their sense of social justice and moral responsibility and begin to understand that their own choices and behaviour can affect local, national or global issues and political and social institutions. They learn how to take part more fully in school and community activities. As they begin to develop into young adults, they face the changes of puberty and transfer to secondary school with support and encouragement from their school. They learn how to make more confident and informed choices about their health and environment; to take more responsibility, individually and as a group, for their own learning; and to resist bullying.

Knowledge, skills and understanding

Developing confidence and responsibility and making the most of their abilities

1. Pupils should be taught:

  1. to talk and write about their opinions, and explain their views, on issues that affect themselves and society
  2. to recognise their worth as individuals by identifying positive things about themselves and their achievements, seeing their mistakes, making amends and setting personal goals
  3. to face new challenges positively by collecting information, looking for help, making responsible choices, and taking action
  4. to recognise, as they approach puberty, how people's emotions change at that time and how to deal with their feelings towards themselves, their family and others in a positive way
  5. about the range of jobs carried out by people they know, and to understand how they can develop skills to make their own contribution in the future
  6. to look after their money and realise that future wants and needs may be met through saving.

Preparing to play an active role as citizens

2. Pupils should be taught:

  1. to research, discuss and debate topical issues, problems and events
  2. why and how rules and laws are made and enforced, why different rules are needed in different situations and how to take part in making and changing rules
  3. to realise the consequences of anti-social and aggressive behaviours, such as bullying and racism, on individuals and communities
  4. that there are different kinds of responsibilities, rights and duties at home, at school and in the community, and that these can sometimes conflict with each other
  5. to reflect on spiritual, moral, social, and cultural issues, using imagination to understand other people's experiences
  6. to resolve differences by looking at alternatives, making decisions and explaining choices
  7. what democracy is, and about the basic institutions that support it locally and nationally
  8. to recognise the role of voluntary, community and pressure groups
  9. to appreciate the range of national, regional, religious and ethnic identities in the United Kingdom
  10. that resources can be allocated in different ways and that these economic choices affect individuals, communities and the sustainability of the environment
  11. to explore how the media present information.

Developing a healthy, safer lifestyle

3. Pupils should be taught:

  1. what makes a healthy lifestyle, including the benefits of exercise and healthy eating, what affects mental health, and how to make informed choices
  2. that bacteria and viruses can affect health and that following simple, safe routines can reduce their spread
  3. about how the body changes as they approach puberty
  4. which commonly available substances and drugs are legal and illegal, their effects and risks
  5. to recognise the different risks in different situations and then decide how to behave responsibly, including sensible road use, and judging what kind of physical contact is acceptable or unacceptable
  6. that pressure to behave in an unacceptable or risky way can come from a variety of sources, including people they know, and how to ask for help and use basic techniques for resisting pressure to do wrong
  7. school rules about health and safety, basic emergency aid procedures and where to get help.

Developing good relationships and respecting the differences between people

4. Pupils should be taught:

  1. that their actions affect themselves and others, to care about other people's feelings and to try to see things from their points of view
  2. to think about the lives of people living in other places and times, and people with different values and customs
  3. to be aware of different types of relationship, including marriage and those between friends and families, and to develop the skills to be effective in relationships
  4. to realise the nature and consequences of racism, teasing, bullying and aggressive behaviours, and how to respond to them and ask for help
  5. to recognise and challenge stereotypes
  6. that differences and similarities between people arise from a number of factors, including cultural, ethnic, racial and religious diversity, gender and disability
  7. where individuals, families and groups can get help and support.

Breadth of opportunities

5. During the key stage, pupils should be taught the Knowledge, skills and understanding through opportunities to:

  1. take responsibility [for example, for planning and looking after the school environment; for the needs of others, such as by acting as a peer supporter, as a befriender, or as a playground mediator for younger pupils; for looking after animals properly; for identifying safe, healthy and sustainable means of travel when planning their journey to school]
  2. feel positive about themselves [for example, by producing personal diaries, profiles and portfolios of achievements; by having opportunities to show what they can do and how much responsibility they can take]
  3. participate [for example, in the school's decision-making process, relating it to democratic structures and processes such as councils, parliaments, government and voting]
  4. make real choices and decisions [for example, about issues affecting their health and wellbeing such as smoking; on the use of scarce resources; how to spend money, including pocket money and contributions to charities]
  5. meet and talk with people [for example, people who contribute to society through environmental pressure groups or international aid organisations; people who work in the school and the neighbourhood, such as religious leaders, community police officers]
  6. develop relationships through work and play [for example, taking part in activities with groups that have particular needs, such as children with special needs and the elderly; communicating with children in other countries by satellite, email or letters]
  7. consider social and moral dilemmas that they come across in life [for example, encouraging respect and understanding between different races and dealing with harassment]
  8. find information and advice [for example, through helplines; by understanding about welfare systems in society]
prepare for change [for example, transferring to secondary school]
Religious Education

Throughout key stage 2, pupils learn about Christianity and at least two of the other principal religions, recognising the impact of religion and belief locally, nationally and globally. They make connections between differing aspects of religion and consider the different forms of religious expression. They consider the beliefs, teachings, practices and ways of life central to religion. They learn about sacred texts and other sources and consider their meanings. They begin to recognise diversity in religion, learning about similarities and differences both within and between religions and beliefs and the importance of dialogue between them. They extend the range and use of specialist vocabulary. They recognise the challenges involved in distinguishing between ideas of right and wrong, and valuing what is good and true. They communicate their ideas, recognising other people's viewpoints. They consider their own beliefs and values and those of others in the light of their learning in religious education.

Knowledge, skills and understanding

Learning about religion

1. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. describe the key aspects of religions, especially the people, stories and traditions that influence the beliefs and values of others
  2. describe the variety of practices and ways of life in religions and understand how these stem from, and are closely connected with, beliefs and teachings
  3. identify and begin to describe the similarities and differences within and between religions
  4. investigate the significance of religion in the local, national and global communities
  5. consider the meaning of a range of forms of religious expression, understand why they are important in religion and note links between them
  6. describe and begin to understand religious and other responses to ultimate and ethical questions
  7. use specialist vocabulary in communicating their knowledge and understanding
  8. use and interpret information about religions from a range of sources.

Learning from religion

2. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. reflect on what it means to belong to a faith community, communicating their own and others' responses
  2. respond to the challenges of commitment both in their own lives and within religious traditions, recognising how commitment to a religion is shown in a variety of ways
  3. discuss their own and others' views of religious truth and belief, expressing their own ideas
  4. reflect on ideas of right and wrong and their own and others' responses to them
  5. reflect on sources of inspiration in their own and others' lives.

Breadth of study

3. During the key stage, pupils should be taught the Knowledge, skills and understanding through the following areas of study:

Religions and beliefs

  1. Christianity
  2. at least two other principal religions
  3. a religious community with a significant local presence, where appropriate
  4. a secular world view, where appropriate


  1. beliefs and questions: how people's beliefs about God, the world and others impact on their lives
  2. teachings and authority: what sacred texts and other sources say about God, the world and human life
  3. worship, pilgrimage and sacred places: where, how and why people worship, including at particular sites
  4. the journey of life and death: why some occasions are sacred to believers, and what people think about life after death
  5. symbols and religious expression: how religious and spiritual ideas are expressed
  6. inspirational people: figures from whom believers find inspiration
  7. religion and the individual: what is expected of a person in following a religion or belief
  8. religion, family and community: how religious families and communities practise their faith, and the contributions this makes to local life
  9. beliefs in action in the world: how religions and beliefs respond to global issues of human rights, fairness, social justice and the importance of the environment

Experiences and opportunities

  1. encountering religion through visitors and visits to places of worship, and focusing on the impact and reality of religion on the local and global community
  2. discussing religious and philosophical questions, giving reasons for their own beliefs and those of others
  3. considering a range of human experiences and feelings
  4. reflecting on their own and others' insights into life and its origin, purpose and meaning
  5. expressing and communicating their own and others' insights through art and design, music, dance, drama and ICT
  6. developing the use of ICT, particularly in enhancing pupils' awareness of religions and beliefs globally.